*** Guide-to-Links ***

Q is used in questions, to link to auxilliary verbs, whenever there is s-v inversion (i.e. when there is no preceding object.) In truth queries, the auxiliary connects to the wall (ex. 1 below). In general WH-questions, it connects the question-word (WHEN, WHERE, WHY, HOW) to the auxilliary (ex. 2). For locative questions, it connects the preposition to the auxilliary (ex.3). In this last case, there is no way to directly join the WH-locator to the auxilliary, without a link-crossing being forced (in this example, WHICH and WERE cannot be linked without violating planarity).

         |     |            
       /////  Are you going to to the movie?

         |     |    |
       /////  Why  did you go?

               +-----Js----+    |
         +--W--+-JQ-+      |    |
         |     |    |      |    | 
       /////  In  which  room  were you working?
This can be contrasted with noun-focused questions, either of object-type or subject-type, where the question-word connects to the verb ("WHAT DID you buy", "WHO BOUGHT that"). In the former case, there is s-v inversion, but no Q connection is made. Thus the Q- is optional on auxiliaries.

Post-processing ensures that when a question-word is used in object-type or when-where-why questions (but not subject-type questions), the outer group of the sentence contains some kind of SI; this is because in all such cases, a Wq is used to connect to the wall, and this requires an SI in the same group. Post-processing further ensures that SI links can only be used when a Wq is present (see "SI"). However, in simple yes-no questions, question inversion must occur, yet no question word is present. Thus the Q+ on the wall is subscripted Qd, and this is added to Wq on the list of link-types that permit s-v inversion. Similar considerations apply for the Qp link.

(Note that the Q- on auxiliaries is conjoined with SI+, but disjoined with S-; by link logic, it can only be used with SI+. Post-processing tightly constrains the use of SI, preventing it from occurring in indirect questions, relative clauses, etc.; the use of Q is thus automatically constrained as well.)

Qd: Truth query, Conditionals

The Qd link, because it connects to auxilliaries, effectively indicates a truth-query.

            +-------->WV------->+      |
            |        +----I*d---+      |
            +-->Qd---+-SIp-+    +-Osm+ |
            |        |     |    |    | |
        LEFT-WALL did.v-d you see.v it ?

            |        +---Paf---+           |
            +-->Qd---+-SIs-+   +--MVp-+    |
            |        |     |   |      |    |
        LEFT-WALL was.v-d it fun.a there.r ?
It is also used in conditional constructions: specifically, post-posed conditionals with subject-verb inversion:
    +------------->Qd-------------------+           |
    |                      +-----Iqj----+----PP-----+
    |               +--PP--+-Ox-+  +-Xd-+-SI--+     |
    |               |      |    |  |    |     |     |           
LEFT-WALL I would have   seen  you ,   had   you   been there
          I would have   done that ,   had   you   come with me

Qw: WH-aux linking

The Qw link is used to connect WH-words to auxilliaries. This allows the primary verb to be marked as a head-verb (via the WV connector), the auxilliary marked with (Qw- & I+), thus forming a cycle closed by the W connector between the WH-word and the wall.

            +---------->WV----------->+   |
            |              +-----I----+   |
            +-->Wq--+--Qw--+-SIp+     |   |
            |       |      |    |     |   |
        LEFT-WALL when  will.v you come.v ?
        LEFT-WALL where will.v you  go.v  ?

Qp: Prep-what/which-aux linking

The Qp link is used when a truth query (Qd link) has been converted into a WH-query by a preposed preposition:

            +---------------->WV---------------->+    |
            |      +--------Qp-------+           |    |
            |      +----Js---+       +-----I-----+    |
            +->Wj--+-JQ+Ds**c+       +-SIp+      |    |
            |      |   |     |       |    |      |    |
        LEFT-WALL by what means.s will.v you arrive.v ?
Ideally, there would also be a link between the WH-word and the auxilliary; but this is not possible in this case, as a link-crossing would be forced.

The Qp link also works when the auxilliary verb is elided:

            +------------>WV----------->+   |
            |       +---------Qp--------+   |
            |       +-----Js-----+      |   |
            +-->Wj--+--JQ-+--D---+      |   |
            |       |     |      |      |   |
        LEFT-WALL  By   what   means  ....v ?
        LEFT-WALL  For  what  reason  ....v ?
        LEFT-WALL  To   what    end   ....v ?
        LEFT-WALL  In   which   way   ....v ?
Other examples include: "IN which room WERE you working", "TO whom WERE you speaking". See JQ and J for details.

Qe: Adverbial questions

Qe is used to connect adverbs to following auxiliaries in adverbial questions:

         +EEh-+--Qe--+-SI+   |
         |    |      |   |   |
        How quickly did you run

Qe can only be used in questions ("*Very quickly did you run"). This is enforced by the fact that the sentence must connect to the wall, and can only do so through "how". Again, the use of Qe in indirect questions is prevented because Q- on auxiliaries is conjoined with SI, whose use is constrained by post-processing.

One false positive must be addressed here, however:

         |           +----I---+
         |    +--Qe--+-SI-+   |
         |    |      |    |   |
      * Who quickly did Jane hit

We prohibit this in post-processing by requiring that a group containing a Qe must contain an EEh - a link-type occurring only on the word "how".

Qa: Why-action questions

Qa is used to connect the question "why?" to action verbs:

          |      |    |     |
      LEFT-WALL why run.v away ?

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