*** Guide-to-Links ***

PF is used in cases of fronted prepositional and participle phrases, typically (but not always) occurring together with subject-verb inversion. The PFb link is used for copular inversion, while the plain PF link is used for locative and directive inversion. The CP link is used for quotative inversion.

          |                   |    |
        Among the candidates was Jane Smith, a professor
        Carrying the box     was a small child
        ?Described by John   was a new program

          |                   |     |
        Under the tree      slept  Jim
        Into the room       walked two students

          |                   |     |
        There                lay the money
Such phrases vary widely in their acceptability, depending on the participle or preposition; we allow all participles and most prepositions to be used this way, but only with a cost of 1 or 2. The PFt link cannot connect to PFb and thus serves to prevent "there is" from being interpreted as an S-V inversion.

Such fronting can occur even without S-V inversion:

          |                        |
        There              he transferred the remains
        There the remains can be found
In this example, "the remains" acts as the subject to "found" and occurs in normal sentence order.

These phrases are not to be confused with openers. Openers attach to the subject of an ordinary main clause, which does not have s-v inversion and can have any verb: "Carrying the box, Jane left". Fronted prepositional or participle constructions involve s-v inversion.

In such cases, the fronted phrase must attach to the wall; the Wp link is used for this purpose. S-V inversion is necessary here ("*Among the candidates Jane Smith was"); thus the participle makes a Wp connection to the wall, enforcing s-v inversion in post-processing.

        among:    J+ & (Mp- or MVp- or ... [[Wp- & PF+]])
        carrying: (Pg- & (O+...))   or    
            ((O+...) & (Ss*g+ or COp+ or [[Wp- & PF+]]));
For participles, note that the Wp- & PF+ complex is directly disjoined with the COp+ and Ss*g+, and is to the right of the complement expression; it is fully disjoined with the Pg-, which is to the left of its complement expression. See CO: Participles as Openers for an explanation.

Obsolete form

Earlier versions of the dictionary used PF in certain direct and indirect questions with "be". This usage has been entirely replaced by Qw, which links to the WH-words used to front questions. The description below is maintained to document this older behavior.

Normally forms of "be" require a complement to the right; but they can also be satisfied by a question-word to the left like "where", "when" or "how".

      |     |    |   |
    ///// Where are you

          +--QI-+    +-S-+
          |     |    |   |
     I wonder where you are

Forms of "be" thus have PF- directly disjoined with "O+ or Pg+ or Pv+...".

The question-words "where" and "when" have PF- conjoined with Wq- or QI-. In questions, then, a Wq- connection to the wall is made, enforcing s-v inversion (see "SI"); in indirect questions, an QI connection is made, preventing s-v inversion.

Note that other verbs cannot be used in this way: "*Where ran you", "*What think you", "*What have you?" The first two cases are prevented because ordinary verbs don't have SI+ connectors; the third is prevented because, although "have" has an SI+, it is conjoined only with PP+ (used in past-participles) and not with O+ and B- (used with direct objects). Only on forms of "be" is the SI+ conjoined with the entire complement expression.

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