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N connects the word "not" to preceding auxiliaries and modals.

            +-N-+  |
            |   |  |
	He had not gone
	He was not speaking to Fred
        I will not do it

"Not" is similar to an ordinary adverb, in that it can be
inserted between an auxiliary and a participle ("He had
quickly gone", "He was quietly speaking to Fred"). With
adverbs, we use E in this situations to connect the adverb to
the following participle.  However, adverbs may modify such
participles in any of their uses; for example, in uses of
progressive participles as openers or noun modifiers ("A man
quietly speaking to Fred looked up"); "not" is generally not
used in this way ("?The man not speaking to Fred looked
up"). Therefore we have "not" connect not to the following
participle, but to the previous auxiliary, using
N. Auxiliaries therefore have N+ conjoined with their
participle connectors (I+, Pp+, Pg+, Pv+).

(Occasionally, one does see things like "The man not
speaking to Fred", with "not" modifying a participle
modifier. For this, we have the participle connect to the noun
in a special way, through "not". See "M: M with 'not'".)

The word "not" may also follow the verb "be" with adjectives,
objects, and prepositional phrases; for this we can use
EB. See "EB".

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